How Proleukin works
Providing hope is possible with Proleukin.
Complete response rates were 7% in mRCC patients and 6% in mM patients.5
How Proleukin works
Proleukin (aldesleukin) for injection is a recombinant version of interleukin-2 (IL-2), an endogenous cytokine that has multiple effects on immune response.1,2 By increasing lymphocyte populations—and cytotoxic function—IL-2 may promote the destruction of cancerous tumors.1
IL-2 has been well studied for over 35 years3
The studied effects of IL-2 include activation of:
Proleukin directly activates the immune system5,6
It is well established that when cancerous cells escape immune system detection—and its subsequent defensive protection—they can grow and metastasize.7,8 Like naturally occurring IL-2, Proleukin is a T-cell growth factor that causes widespread activation of the immune system to better recognize and kill cancer cells.5
The immunoregulatory properties of Proleukin have been demonstrated in in vitro studies, and include the ability to5:
Treatment that may offer the proven possibility to be cancer free5,9,10
Overall health status has been shown to correlate with how a patient will respond to Proleukin.4,7 Consider immunotherapy with Proleukin for your patients with mRCC or mM who have ECOG Performance Status 1 or 0.
Complete response rates were 7% in mRCC patients and 6% in mM patients.5
References: 1. Jarkowski A III, Wong MKK. A re-assessment of the safety and efficacy of interleukin-2 for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma. Clin Med Ther. 2009;1:527-540. 2. Bosco MC, Curiel RE, Zea AH, Malabarba MG, Ortaldo JR, Espinoza-Delgado I. IL-2 signaling in human monocytes involves the phosphorylation and activation of p59hck. J Immunol. 2000;164(9):4575-4585. 3. Jiang T, Zhou C, Ren S. Role of IL-2 in cancer immunotherapy. Oncoimmunology. 2016:5(6):e1163462. 4. Sanarico N, Ciaramella A, Sacchi A, et al. Human monocyte-derived dendritic cells differentiated in the presence of IL-2 produce proinflammatory cytokines and prime Th1 immune response. J Leukoc Biol. 2006;80(3):555-562. 5. Proleukin [package insert]. Yardley, PA: Clinigen, Inc; 2019. 6. Bhatia S, Tykodi SS, Thompson JA. Treatment of metastatic melanoma: an overview. Oncology (Williston Park). 2009;23(6):488-496. 7. Hanahan D, Weinbert RA. Hallmarks of cancer: the next generation. Cell. 2011;144(5):646-674. 8. Igney FH, Krammer PH. Immune escape of tumors: apoptosis resistance and tumor counterattack. J Leukoc Biol. 2002;71(6):907-920. 9. Fisher RI, Rosenberg SA, Fyfe G. Long-term survival update for high-dose recombinant interleukin-2 in patients with renal cell carcinoma. Cancer J Sci Am. 2000;6(suppl 1):S55-S57. 10. Atkins MB, Kunkel L, Sznol M, Rosenberg SA. High-dose recombinant interleukin-2 therapy in patients with metastatic melanoma: long-term survival update. Cancer J Sci Am. 2000;6(suppl 1):S11-S14.
Proleukin® (aldesleukin) is indicated for the treatment of adults with metastatic melanoma (mM) and metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC).
Summary of Important Safety Information for Proleukin® (aldesleukin) for injection, for intravenous infusion.
Therapy with Proleukin® (aldesleukin) should be restricted to patients with normal cardiac and pulmonary functions as defined by thallium stress testing and formal pulmonary function testing. Extreme caution should be used in patients with a normal thallium stress test and a normal pulmonary function test who have a history of cardiac or pulmonary disease.
Proleukin should be administered in a hospital setting under the supervision of a qualified physician experienced in the use of anticancer agents. An intensive care facility and specialists skilled in cardiopulmonary or intensive care medicine must be available.
Proleukin administration has been associated with capillary leak syndrome (CLS) which is characterized by a loss of vascular tone and extravasation of plasma proteins and fluid into the extravascular space. CLS results in hypotension and reduced organ perfusion which may be severe and can result in death. CLS may be associated with cardiac arrhythmias (supraventricular and ventricular), angina, myocardial infarction, respiratory insufficiency requiring intubation, gastrointestinal bleeding or infarction, renal insufficiency, edema, and mental status changes.
Proleukin treatment is associated with impaired neutrophil function (reduced chemotaxis) and with an increased risk of disseminated infection, including sepsis and bacterial endocarditis. Consequently, preexisting bacterial infections should be adequately treated prior to initiation of Proleukin therapy. Patients with indwelling central lines are particularly at risk for infection with gram positive microorganisms. Antibiotic prophylaxis with oxacillin, nafcillin, ciprofloxacin, or vancomycin has been associated with a reduced incidence of staphylococcal infections.
Proleukin administration should be withheld in patients developing moderate to severe lethargy or somnolence; continued administration may result in coma.
Proleukin® (aldesleukin) is indicated for the treatment of adults with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (metastatic RCC).
Proleukin is indicated for the treatment of adults with metastatic melanoma.
Careful patient selection is mandatory prior to the administration of Proleukin.
Evaluation of clinical studies to date reveals that patients with more favorable ECOG performance status (ECOG PS 0) at treatment initiation respond better to Proleukin, with a higher response rate and lower toxicity. Therefore, selection of patients for treatment should include assessment of performance status.
Experience in patients with ECOG PS > 1 is extremely limited.
Proleukin® (aldesleukin) is contraindicated in patients with a known history of hypersensitivity to interleukin-2 or any component of the Proleukin formulation.
Proleukin is contraindicated in patients with an abnormal thallium stress test or abnormal pulmonary function tests and those with organ allografts. Retreatment with Proleukin is contraindicated in patients who have experienced the following drug-related toxicities while receiving an earlier course of therapy: sustained ventricular tachycardia (≥ 5 beats), cardiac arrhythmias not controlled or unresponsive to management, chest pain with ECG changes, consistent with angina or myocardial infarction, cardiac tamponade, intubation for > 72 hours, renal failure requiring dialysis > 72 hours, coma or toxic psychosis lasting > 48 hours, repetitive or difficult to control seizures, bowel ischemia/perforation, GI bleeding requiring surgery.
Because of the severe adverse events which generally accompany Proleukin® (aldesleukin) therapy at the recommended dosages, thorough clinical evaluation should be performed to identify patients with significant cardiac, pulmonary, renal, hepatic, or CNS impairment in whom Proleukin is contraindicated. Patients with normal cardiovascular, pulmonary, hepatic, and CNS function may experience serious, life-threatening or fatal adverse events. Adverse events are frequent, often serious, and sometimes fatal.
Should adverse events, requiring dose modification occur, dosage should be withheld rather than reduced.
Proleukin has been associated with exacerbation of preexisting autoimmune disease and inflammatory disorders. In some cases, the onset of new autoimmune diseases, such as vitiligo, may occur. Symptomatic hyperglycemia and/or diabetes mellitus have been reported during Proleukin therapy.
All patients should have thorough evaluation and treatment of CNS metastases and have a negative scan prior to receiving Proleukin therapy. New neurologic signs, symptoms, and anatomic lesions following Proleukin therapy have been reported in patients without evidence of CNS metastases. Neurologic signs and symptoms associated with Proleukin therapy usually improve after discontinuation of Proleukin therapy; however, there are reports of permanent neurologic defects. In patients with known seizure disorders, extreme caution should be exercised as Proleukin may cause seizures.
Patients should have normal cardiac, pulmonary, hepatic, and CNS function at the start of therapy. Capillary leak syndrome (CLS) begins immediately after Proleukin® (aldesleukin) treatment starts and is marked by increased capillary permeability to protein and fluids and reduced vascular tone.
Proleukin® (aldesleukin) treatment should be withheld for failure to maintain organ perfusion as demonstrated by altered mental status, reduced urine output, a fall in the systolic blood pressure below 90 mm Hg or onset of cardiac arrhythmias.
Recovery from CLS begins soon after cessation of Proleukin therapy. Usually, within a few hours, the blood pressure rises, organ perfusion is restored and reabsorption of extravasated fluid and protein begins.
Kidney and liver function are impaired during Proleukin treatment. Use of concomitant nephrotoxic or hepatotoxic medications may further increase toxicity to the kidney or liver.
Mental status changes including irritability, confusion, or depression which occur while receiving Proleukin may be due to bacteremia or early bacterial sepsis, hypoperfusion, occult CNS malignancy, or direct Proleukin-induced CNS toxicity. Patients should be evaluated for these and other causes of mental status changes. Alterations in mental status due solely to Proleukin therapy may progress for several days before recovery begins. Rarely, patients have sustained permanent neurologic deficits.
Proleukin enhancement of cellular immune function may increase the risk of allograft rejection in transplant patients.
Serious manifestations of eosinophilia involving eosinophilic infiltration of cardiac and pulmonary tissues can occur following Proleukin.
The rate of drug-related deaths in the 255 metastatic RCC patients who received single-agent Proleukin® (aldesleukin) was 4% (11/255); the rate of drug-related deaths in the 270 metastatic melanoma patients who received single-agent Proleukin was 2% (6/270).
In clinical trials, the following life-threatening (Grade 4) adverse events were seen in > 1% of 525 patients (255 with metastatic renal cell cancer and 270 with metastatic melanoma) treated with Proleukin: oliguria (6%), anuria (5%), hypotension (3%), respiratory disorder (3%), bilirubinemia (2%), coma (2%), diarrhea (2%), acidosis (1%), acute kidney failure (1%), apnea (1%), cardiovascular disorder (1%), coagulation disorders (1%), confusion (1%), creatinine increase (1%), dyspnea (1%), fever (1%), heart arrest (1%), infection (1%), myocardial infarction (1%), psychosis (1%), sepsis (1%), SGOT increase (1%), stupor (1%), supraventricular tachycardia (1%), thrombocytopenia (1%), ventricular tachycardia (1%), and vomiting (1%). From the same trials, the following adverse events (Grades 1-4) were seen in ≥ 30% of 525 patients (255 with metastatic renal cell cancer and 270 with metastatic melanoma) treated with Proleukin: hypotension (71%), diarrhea (67%), oliguria (63%), chills (52%), vomiting (50%), dyspnea (43%), rash (42%), bilirubinemia (40%), thrombocytopenia (37%), nausea (35%), confusion (34%), and creatinine increase (33%).
Please see the full Prescribing Information, including Boxed Warning, for Proleukin® (aldesleukin) for injection, for intravenous infusion.
You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit www.fda.gov/medwatch or call 1-800-FDA-1088.
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